4 Investments That Are Better Than a Powerball Ticket
These are all better investments than a Powerball Lottery ticket.
Source: Flickr user Daniel Oines.
Given that three $500 million-plus jackpots have been won in the past three years, it’s no wonder that millions of Americans play the Powerball. That said, some basic math shows that it’s a bad investment, and nearly every ticket has a negative value for the buyer. Your odds of winning the jackpot are 1 in 175,223,510. To get your head around that, imagine that the entire U.S. population — in every multimillion-person city, every sprawling suburb, and each of the countless small towns — played the Powerball. There would one or two winners. Even to win just $4, the odds are worse than 1 in 55.
With that in mind, we asked our Motley Fool writers to name three investments they think are better than a Powerball ticket. Read on for their answers.
When the house has a big edge, I’m a big fan of betting on the house. With the lottery, your ticket to fortune lies in shares of lottery operator International Game Technology (NYSE: IGT) , which is one of the companies behind casino slot machines and video lottery terminals. Several states across the country have contracted with International Game Technology to run video lottery programs, which in many instances resemble electronic scratch-off tickets that provide potential instant wins to players. Between those contracts and its business in traditional casinos, International Game Technology has helped both private businesses and government entities profit from the inherent advantages in machine-based gaming.
Shareholders in International Game Technology may not hit a multimillion-dollar jackpot, but the stock pays a 2.5% dividend yield produced from the pockets of the millions of lottery losers. Challenging economic conditions in certain areas that specialize in gaming have held back IGT’s growth recently, but many expect the company to rebound as the U.S. economy improves. So long as you’re comfortable profiting from the poor decisions of those who frequently play the lottery and other high-risk games, International Game Technology offers an opportunity to share in the gains that come at the expense of gamblers.
It’s hard to think of an investment that isn’t better than a $2 Powerball ticket. The U.S. Postal Service’s Forever stamps make a fine long-term holding, as they can help you keep in touch with loved ones and they never lose value, regardless of inflation or market conditions! For a three- to five-year investment, consider a nice pair of socks. And for you short-term investors, I highly recommend a burrito or a box of donuts. Any of those “investments” is virtually guaranteed to pay off more than a Powerball ticket.
But for a stock investment that’s extremely likely to pay off far more than a lottery ticket, consider Waste Management (NYSE: WM) . It came to mind as I imagined the many landfills and recycling centers filling up with discarded, non-winning lottery tickets. Waste Management is the 800-pound gorilla in the garbage industry, and it offers a dividend that recently yielded a sizable 2.9%, too. And given the payout ratio of 55%, there’s plenty of room for dividend increases in future years.
Waste Management’s business and much of its cash flow is reliable, as we will always have trash to get rid of. Some of its results will fluctuate a bit over time (such as its recycling operations, which are affected by the changing prices of metals), but it remains a solid long-term prospect. It generates more than a billion dollars in annual free cash flow, and its net profit margins have been rising, recently topping a hefty 9%. Waste Management has been cutting costs recently, too, while generally maintaining or increasing its prices.
I’d say this stock’s odds of paying off look a little better than 1 in 175 million.
One of the riskiest investments you can make in the stock market is a biotech company that has no approved drugs, brings in little revenue, and blows through cash like it’s going out of style. And yet you could throw a dart at a list of such biotechs, buy shares of the company you hit, and still have a better shot at success than you would buying a Powerball ticket.
I didn’t literally throw a dart, but I did randomly pick a biotech meeting all of those criteria — Peregrine Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: PPHM) . Peregrine has two drugs in its pipeline, neither of which is approved by the FDA. It lost $38 million in the nine months ending Jan. 31. Mind you, I don’t recommend buying shares of Peregrine or selecting any stock (biotech or otherwise) at random. However, Peregrine stock still has a much higher chance of paying off than a lottery ticket.
Here’s a much better bet, though: Find the stock of a company that consistently delivers for its shareholders, buy shares, and be patient. If you wanted to stick with biotech stocks, Gilead Sciences (NASDAQ: GILD) would be a good choice. The company has a commanding presence in the multibillion-dollar HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C drug markets. Gilead has been consistently profitable for years, and it even pays a dividend — something few biotechs do. That’s the kind of investment that can be truly rewarding over the long run.
No matter what your income level is, contributing to a retirement savings account is an infinitely better investment than a Powerball ticket. Retirement savings accounts such as 401(k)s and IRAs allow your investments to grow tax-free and thereby compound at a far higher rate than they could in a standard brokerage account.
In addition to letting your savings grow faster, traditional 401(k)s and IRAs grant you an up-front tax deduction on your contributions. If you’re covered by a retirement plan at work, there are income limits to the tax deduction for contributing to an IRA. If you aren’t covered by a retirement plan at work, then there is no income limit on your tax deduction. There are no income limits on the tax deduction you get from contributing to a 401(k).
Those in the lowest 20% by income level have an added incentive to contribute to a retirement account because of the retirement savers tax credit. Low-income taxpayers who are not full-time students can get a tax credit of 10% to 20% of up to $2,000 in retirement savings ($4,000 for those married filing jointly). However, there are income limits, so take note:
Whether you can take the retirement savers tax credit or not, you’re much better off putting your money into a retirement savings account than buying a Powerball ticket.
These are all better investments than a Powerball Lottery ticket.
The Lottery: Is It Ever Worth Playing?
Feeling lucky? You’d better be if you play the lottery. Depending on which one you play, you have some pretty long odds.
For example, the odds of winning a recent Powerball drawing in Tennessee was 1 in 292.2 million. To put this in perspective, you have a:
- One in 2,320,000 chance of being killed by lightning
- One in 3,441,325 chance of dying after coming into contact with a venomous animal or plant
- One in 10 million chance of being struck by falling airplane parts
Most people would agree the risk of any of these events actually happening to them is pretty slim.
Let’s look at it another way. Assume you went to the largest stadium in the world—which happens to be in North Korea. The stadium was filled to capacity. As part of the price of your ticket, you were entered into a lottery where you could win a new car. In that case, your odds of winning are 1 in 150,000.
Would you be sitting on the edge of your seat in that stadium as they’re reading the ticket number or would you believe that, realistically, you’re not going to win? To equal the odds of winning the Powerball lottery, you would have to fill that same stadium to capacity 1,947 more times and put all of those people together and have the same drawing for the one car. Would anybody believe they could actually win in a crowd of people that large?
Still not convinced? If they were giving away a new home to just one person and everybody in the six most populated states in the United States entered, that would equal your chances of winning the lottery.
The largest lottery jackpot that was ever drawn in U.S. history—for Powerball in January 2016.
Of course, someone has to win the lottery, and the only way to win it is to be in it, as the ads say. But what’s the best way to be in it? The rules of probability dictate you do not increase your odds of winning the lottery by playing frequently. So each time you play the lottery, there is independent probability—much like a coin toss where each and every toss, regardless of the number of tosses, has a one in two probability of landing on heads. The odds stay the same—in the lottery and the coin toss—regardless of the frequency of playing.
You can, however, increase your odds by purchasing more tickets for the same lottery drawing. Keep in mind, though, that two tickets might increase your odds from one in 14 million to two in 14 million, which is not a significant improvement, statistically speaking. Someone would have to buy a lot of tickets to appreciably increase their odds of winning. Even if a person could afford to, however, he or she could not buy enough lottery tickets to guarantee a win unless he or she was the only person buying the tickets. As more tickets are collectively sold, the odds of winning inversely decrease.
- Your chances of winning the lottery are remote.
- The odds of winning the lottery do not increase by playing frequently, rather, you’d do better by purchasing more tickets for the same drawing.
- Although there is no guarantee in the stock market, the likelihood of getting a return on your investment is far better than your chances of winning the lottery.
- Lottery winners have the option to take their cash in one lump sum or by spreading it out over a number of years through annuities.
- There are tax implications for both, although, in the end, an annuity tends to have a greater tax advantage.
Who Plays the Lottery?
The chances of winning the lottery are exceedingly remote, but that doesn’t stop people from playing. Overall, approximately half of all U.S. adults collectively will spend upwards of $1,000 per month in the hopes of striking it rich. Time and again, when a lottery was introduced in a state, the local number of adults who engaged in gambling (which a lottery technically is) increased 40%. In certain states, the majority of lottery revenue comes from a small percentage of players. A Minnesota study, for instance, determined that 20% of its lottery players accounted for 71% of lottery income, and in Pennsylvania, 29% of players accounted for 79% of income, according to the most recent statistics from the North American Association of State and Provincial Lotteries (NASPL).
So what? The lottery is just one of those fun things that we do as a way to strike it rich, right? For some folks, that’s true, but for others—often those with the least amount of money to spare—playing for these jackpots can be a serious income drainer. An overwhelming amount of lottery participants seem to reside in the lower economic classes, according to the stats. A Gallup study breaks down some statistics, noting that regular lottery players make approximately $36,000 to $89,999. Small wonder that consumer-finance gurus say the lottery is essentially an extra tax on the poor.
Lottery retailers collect commissions on the tickets they sell and also cash in when they sell a winning ticket, usually in the form of an award or bonus.
Gambling vs. Investing
A curious headline was placed on the homepage of the Mega Millions website on March 25, 2011, a day when the odds of winning flew up to 1 in 175 million. The headline read, “Save for Retirement.” Anti-gambling groups cried foul at this apparent attempt to spin the lottery as a means to fund a person’s post-work years and lottery officials quickly issued a statement saying they were running a campaign encouraging people to dream about how they would use their winnings—not offering a financial strategy.
Is there a better, more profitable, way to spend or invest the money you’d otherwise devote to the lottery? Let’s look at the numbers. If a person spends $5 per week on lottery tickets, it adds up to $260 per year. Over 20 years (a typical long-term investment horizon for stocks and bonds), the total spent on lottery tickets would be $5,200. Putting $260 per year into stocks earning approximately 7% annually (based on equities’ historical performance) yields $11,015 after 20 years. But if you just spent the money on lottery tickets and presumably won nothing, you would be out $5,200 after 20 years.
Of course, the stock market is never a sure thing. Stocks can depreciate as well as appreciate. So let’s try a more cautious estimate. Consider a person without a college degree who spent an average of $250 per year purchasing lottery tickets. If that same person were to start an individual retirement account (IRA) or another retirement account that earned a conservative average 4% annual return and contributed that same $250 to it per year for 30 years, he or she would have $15,392 once they reached retirement age. If they did the same thing for 40 years, that number would jump to more than $25,000.
Although some would argue that in today’s economy there is no way to guarantee that the money would earn 4%, there’s also no guarantee that it wouldn’t earn far more than 4%. But all of that aside, the odds of having $15,000 after 30 years are largely in the person’s favor; certainly more so than with the Powerball lottery’s 292-million-to-1 odds.
Lump Sum or Annuity?
Let’s say, despite the dismal odds, you do win the lottery, and you win big—six figures big. You’re going to face a lot of decisions, and the first one is how to receive the funds. With most lotteries, you get a choice: they can write you a check for the lump sum amount or you can receive it in the form of an annuity.
The lump sum is a single cash transfer, whereas the annuity is a series of annual payments (often spread out over 20 to 30 years). Unlike some annuities that end when you do, this is something called an annuity certain: the payouts will continue for the set term of years, so if you pass away, you can bequeath those payments to whomever you would like. Which should you take?
Only six states allow winners to remain anonymous, while three others allow them to collect winnings through an LLC.
The Case for Lump Sum Payment
Most lottery winners opt for a lump sum payment. They want all of the money immediately. That is the main advantage of a lump sum: full and complete access to the funds. Not only do individuals like that, but their newly acquired giant team of accountants, financial advisors, money managers, and estate lawyers do too—the more assets under management, the better, especially if their compensation is based on a percentage of those assets.
Taking a lump sum could also be the better course if, not to be morbid, the winner isn’t likely to live long enough to collect decades of payouts, and has no heirs to be provided for.
Tax Advantage: Annuity
You may be in a better income tax position if you receive the proceeds over several years via an annuity rather than up front. Why? Lottery wins are subject to income tax (both federal and state, except for the few states that don’t tax winnings) in the year you receive the money. Say you win a $10 million jackpot. If you take the lump sum option, the entire sum is subject to income tax that year. However, if you choose the annuity option, the payments would come to you over several decades, and so would their tax bill. For example, in a 30-year payout schedule, instead of $10 million all in one year, you’d get around $333,000 a year. Although that $333,000 would be subject to income tax, it could keep you out of the highest state and federal income tax brackets.
But even if you pay the taxes all at once, it’s roughly the same as paying them over time, isn’t it? Not according to the experts.
If you choose the annuity option, the government takes your winnings and invests them for you—most likely in boring, yet highly stable Treasury bonds. Usually, when you invest, you pay taxes, but when the government invests they do so free of all tax obligations. So, over 30 years, not only are you getting a monthly payment on your winnings, but you’re also earning investment income on them.
Let’s say you opted for annuity payments on a $327.8 million prize, and you’re invested in a 30-year government bond paying 4.5% interest. In your first year, you’ll earn an estimated $14,715,000 in interest. By the end of the 20 years, your winnings would be 20% higher than when you started. All you have to do is submit to having somewhere around $900,000 as a monthly payment after taxes—assuming you’re in the maximum federal tax bracket.
Here’s the other advantage: If you take the lump sum, you effectively have to pay taxes twice—once when you get the check and then again on the income you earn from investing it yourself (you will invest most of it, right?). If the government invests it, you only pay a tax bill once (on the annuity checks).
Other Advantages to Annuities
But perhaps the biggest argument for taking the annuity is more intangible—to protect you from yourself. A six-figure windfall is a life-changing event, and not necessarily a good one. Most people are inexperienced at managing such sums to begin with, but even the wisest and coolest of heads could lose perspective, especially given the avalanche of friends, family, and even strangers that descends once the news gets out, pleading or even demanding a share of the spoils. Academics cite research showing most lottery winners will save only 16 cents of every dollar they win and that one-third of lottery winners go bankrupt.
An annuity can help, by literally limiting the funds in your possession. After all, you can’t give away, squander, or otherwise mishandle what you don’t have. Plus, taking the money over time provides you with a “do-over” card. By receiving a check every year, even if things go badly the first year, you will have many more chances to learn from mistakes, recoup losses, and handle your affairs better.
Inheritance factors are generally free standing but there can be some considerations where lottery inheritance is involved. Taxes are generally withheld from lottery distributions at the time they are paid out. If payments are made in a lump sum, the inheritance can be passed along tax free since inheritance gifts are generally not taxed. If the payments are still coming in as an annuity, taxes will be withheld. As in all inheritance scenarios some estate taxes may be required if values exceed the exclusion limit. Since lottery winnings push many people into the high net worth category, estate taxes may be a factor. This can be a challenge if the heirs do not have the cash on hand to do so. In some states Powerball will convert annuities to lump sums upon death to help better manage any tax burdens.
The Bottom Line
If you ever do win the lottery, you will want to work with your financial advisor, tax attorney, and certified public accountant to determine which option is best for you—taking the winnings all at once or in annuitized payments over decades. As a rule of thumb, if you and your money-management team think they can invest to earn an annual return of more than 3% to 4%, the lump sum option makes more sense over the annuity, at the end of 30 years.
Many people see purchasing lottery tickets as a low-risk investment. Where else can you “invest” $1 or $2 for the opportunity to win hundreds of millions of dollars? The risk-to-reward ratio is certainly appealing, even if the odds of winning are remarkably small. Is it better then, to play the lottery or invest the funds? There is no universally correct answer. Much of it depends on what money is being spent. If it is needed for retirement or the kids’ college, it may make more sense to invest—a payoff is more certain down the road, even if it doesn’t amount to a sexy six-figure check. If, however, the money is tagged for entertainment, and you would have spent it seeing the latest movie anyway, it might be fun to take the chance. Keeping in mind, of course, that you are more likely to die from a snake bite than to ever collect.
Is it ever worth playing the lottery? Discover the probability of winning and the best way to collect the funds if you happen to win.